Preclinical Studies I

A.Blood Lipid Lowering Activity and Related Effects

Study 1

Objective: To study the effect of C. mukul on the prevention and regression of hypercholesterolemia in rabbits.

Methods: Three sets of experiments were conducted on the rabbits as discussed below:

Experiment 1. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits through the administration of hydrogenated groundnut oil. The control animals received 5 g/kg of hydrogenated groundnut oil per day, while the treated group received 5 g/kg hydrogenated groundnut oil along with 2 g/kg C. mukul oleoresin per day. The experiment was conducted for 8 weeks. (figures 1 & 2)

Experiment 2. The loading and unloading of cholesterol from the rabbits were determined by feeding the rabbits crystalline cholesterol (500 mg/kg) in hydrogenated groundnut oil (5 g/kg) for 2 weeks. After the two-week period, animals were either given nothing (control group) or 2 g/kg of C. mukul per day (treatment group) for 2 weeks. (figures 3)

Experiment 3. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits through the administration of crystalline cholesterol. The control animals received crystalline cholesterol (500 mg/kg) in hydrogenated groundnut oil (5 g/kg)   per day for 8 weeks, while the treated group received crystalline cholesterol (500 mg/kg) in hydrogenated groundnut oil (5 g/kg) along with 2 g/kg C. mukul oleoresin per day. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks. (figures 4 & 5)

Blood samples were collected at the end of each experiment to estimate the lipid profile. In addition, the animals were sacrificed to examine tissues for the presence of atherosclerotic lesions

Results:

Figure 1
Effect of Commiphora mukul on hydrogenated groundnut oil-induced hyercholesterolemic rabbits (values are mean S.E.).1


 

Figure 2
Effect of C. mukul on the cholesterol levels in selected tissues of hydrogenated groundnut oil-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits (*statistically significant as compared to control values).1

 

Figure 3
Effect of C. mukul on the regression (unloading) of hypercholesterolemia induced in rabbits by the administration of cholesterol in hydrogenated groundnut oil.1

 

 

Figure 4
Effect of C. mukul on serum cholesterol levels in cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits (values are mean S.E.).1

 

Figure 5
Effect of C. mukul on the cholesterol levels in selected tissues of cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits (*statistically significant as compared to control values).1

 


Although no significant changes were observed in the animals’ food intake, the body weight of animals fed C. mukul declined. The control group developed plaques and swelling of the aorta. No visible lipid deposits or plaques were noticed in the aorta of the treated group. 

Conclusions: The oleoresin of C. mukul reduced the levels of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. In addition, it protected the animals against induction of hypercholestrolemia by hydrogenated groundnut oil and crystalline cholesterol as well as   cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis.

Study 2

Objective: To investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity C. mukul in chicks fed various fractions of gum guggul.

Methods: Healthy, eight-week old chicks were fed an atherogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol and 5% cottonseed oil mixed with feed for 3 weeks. The hypercholesterolemia-induced chicks were divided into 4 groups of eight and fed different fractions of guggul with feed.

Group 1. Control
Group 2. Received 0.1 ml /kg of pure compound I (oily
                guggul fraction that is terpenoid in nature)
Group 3. Received 1 ml/kg of an alcoholic extract of guggul
Group 4. Received 1 mg/kg of pure extract II (guggul
                fraction that is steroid in nature)

Blood samples were collected at the end of each experiment to estimate the lipid profile


Results:

Figure 6
The effect of various guggul fractions on the percentage of cholesterol lowering in chicks.2


Conclusions: All fractions of C. mukul lowered the serum cholesterol of the chicks, but the steroid fraction had the most potent hypolipidemic activity.

 

 

 


 

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